Chapter 44: Osmoregulation and Excretion


1 .       Hormones and the Endocrine System are _____. (Overview E-Book) [Hint]

 mechanisms that moderate change in interstitial fluid
 methods of controlling body temperature
 ways that animals control their environment
 mechanisms that require continual water loss
 chemical processes that stop during torpor

2 .       You just received a freshwater aquarium as a gift and decide to add more fish. When you get to the pet store, you find that the most beautiful fish are saltwater animals, but you decide to buy them anyway. What will happen when you put the saltwater fish in a freshwater aquarium? (Concept 40.1E-Book) [Hint]

 Nothing: the fish will live normally.
 In the better conditions of fresh water, the fish will adapt and evolve.
 The fish will get larger more quickly in the better conditions.
 The fish will dehydrate and die.
 The cells of the fish will take up too much water, and the fish will die.

3 .       Terrestrial animals are _____. (Concept 44.1E-Book) [Hint]

 osmoregulators that do not exchange quantities of water by osmosis with the environment
 likely to have problems with osmoregulation similar to those of freshwater fish
 either arthropods or vertebrates
 obligated to protect their eggs from drying with water-resistant shells
 usually nocturnal

4 .       Birds, insects, and many reptiles excrete nitrogenous waste in the form of uric acid. An advantage of excreting uric acid is that it ____, but a disadvantage is that it _____. (Concept 44.2E-Book) [Hint]

 saves water ... costs energy
 saves energy ... is highly toxic
 is not very toxic ... wastes a lot of water
 is much more soluble in water than other wastes ... costs energy
 saves water ... is highly toxic

5 .       To conserve energy, many toads secrete _____ as tadpoles but _____ as terrestrial adults. (Concept 44.2E-Book) [Hint]

 ammonia ... urea
 urea ... ammonia
 ammonia ... uric acid
 uric acid ... urea.
 urea ... uric acid

6 .       The appropriate group of animals to examine to observe a Malpighian tubule would be _____. (Concept 44.3E-Book) [Hint]

 insects and other terrestrial arthropods

7 .       The kidney's filtration process is nonselective; therefore, _____. (Concept 44.3E-Book) [Hint]

 many valuable substances are lost in the urine
 the proportions of the substances in urine are the same as in blood
 urine is much less concentrated than blood
 filtration really has little control over body fluid composition
 useful substances must be selectively reabsorbed

8 .       Which one of the following descriptions of the part of a mammalian kidney is not correct? (Concept 44.4E-Book) [Hint]

 Bowman's capsule—a ball of capillaries associated with the end of a long tubule
 nephron—the functional unit of the kidney
 urethra—the tube that drains the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
 ureter—the tube that drains the kidney into the urinary bladder
 podocytes—specialized cells of Bowman's capsule that form a selective barrier

9 .       Which one of the following structures is found only in birds and mammals and not in other vertebrates? (Concept 44.4E-Book) [Hint]

 juxtamedullary nephrons
 collecting ducts
 Bowman's capsule

10 .       Which one of the following statements is not correct? (Concept 44.5E-Book) [Hint]

 Aldosterone release decreases blood volume and blood pressure.
 Angiotensin II increases blood pressure and blood volume.
 The enzyme renin is involved in the conversion of angiotensinogen into angiotensin II.
 Antidiuretic hormone increases water reabsorption.
 Alcohol inhibits the release of antidiuretic hormone.

©2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings